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Understanding Water Treatment Chemicals in One Article

2020-11-23
1. Definition of water treatment agent
①Water Treatment Agents
Water treatment agent is a general term for a class of chemicals used in water treatment, which is often easily understood in a one-sided way as chemicals used in wastewater treatment. It includes the chemicals required for sewage treatment, cooling water, boiler water treatment, seawater desalination, membrane separation, biological treatment, flocculation, and ion exchange technologies. Such as corrosion inhibitor, scale inhibitor, dispersant, bactericidal and algaecide agent, flocculant & coagulant, ion exchange resin, purifying agent, cleaning agent, pre-film agent, auxiliary agent, etc.
Water treatment agents are widely used in chemical, petroleum, petrochemical, mining, light industry, daily chemical, textile, printing and dyeing, ceramics, paper making, coating, construction, metallurgy, machinery, medicine and health, transportation, urban and rural environmental protection, agriculture, food processing, electronic cleaning, and other industries to save water, prevent water pollution and ensure the effective operation of processing and manufacturing purposes.

②Wastewater Treatment Chemicals
Wastewater treatment chemicals are chemicals used to treat industrial wastewater and domestic wastewater to meet discharge standards or recycling. To prevent this phenomenon from worsening, the water treatment industry has developed a variety of large-scale water treatment equipment used to treat people's production and living wastewater.
Many enterprises discharge wastewater containing many degradable substances, which cannot be effectively removed by a single water treatment equipment. It is often necessary to add wastewater treatment chemicals according to the peculiarities of the wastewater quality that they treated. 

③wastewater meets the national emission standards.
Wastewater treatment chemicals generally include flocculants, coagulants, coagulants, disinfectants, pH adjusters, defoamers, emulsifiers, oxidation and reduction agents, and so on.

Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment Chemicals
Industrial circulating cooling water treatment agent is the key to industrial water saving, which refers to the chemicals necessary in industrial water treatment in cooling towers, chillers, and other equipment. Through the use of these chemicals, the water quality can meet certain quality requirements, ensure that cooling towers, chillers, and other equipment in the best operating condition, effectively control microbial flora, inhibit the production of scale, prevent corrosion of piping equipment, to reduce energy consumption and extend the service life of the equipment.

These chemicals usually include scale inhibitors, corrosion inhibitors, fungicides, chelating agents, dispersants, cleaning agents, pre-filming agents, etc.

2、The classification and function of water treatment agent characteristics
Common water treatment agents include scale inhibitors and dispersants, corrosion inhibitors, bactericidal and algaecide agents, and flocculants.

(1) Scale inhibiting dispersants (organophosphine, polycarboxylic acid)
Scale inhibiting and dispersing agents are based on their own coalescence, dispersion, and lattice distortion during crystal production to effectively hinder the solid deposition of scale on the metal heat transfer surface.
Organophosphates mainly prevent scale formation by chelating and polycarboxylic acids prevent scale deposition of insoluble salts by dispersing.
(2) Corrosion inhibitors (corrosion inhibitors, corrosion and scale inhibitors)
Mainly zinc molybdate, tungstate, polyphosphate, phosphate, nitrate, BTA, TTA, MBT, imidazoline, etc.
The dissolved oxygen is removed from the water column, thus slowing down the equipment and pipes' corrosion rate in the circulating water system.
(3) Biocides (oxidizing biocides, non-oxidizing biocides)
Bacteria in circulating cooling water mainly include heterotrophic bacteria, autotrophic bacteria, molds, yeasts, etc. The main danger of bacteria is that they produce slime deposits covering the heat exchanger pipe and related fluid pipe walls. The main danger of bacteria is that they produce slime deposits covering the heat exchanger tube and related fluid pipe walls, reducing the cooling effect of cooling water and increasing operating costs. Algaecides and bactericides kill microorganisms and bacteria through infiltration, internal absorption, dispersion, and stripping.
(4) Flocculants (inorganic flocculants, organic flocculants)
"Aggregation" theory, the flocculant is mainly positive (negative) electric groups and the water with negative (positive) electric difficult to separate some particles or particles close to each other, reduce their electric potential, so that it is unstable, and use its polymerization property to make these particles concentrated, and separated by physical or chemical methods. The common ones are PAM, PAC, PAS, PFC, PFS, PDMDAAC, etc.

3、 Innovation and development of organic phosphate scale and corrosion inhibitor (chelator)
(1)、Innovation Development Point 1--Theoretical Basis Research of Synthesis Processes
Starting from the reaction principle, we will investigate each process condition's influence on product quality, further remove impurities, improve reaction efficiency, and find ways to improve product quality and reduce production costs from the source.
Besides, we also need to make some high-end products, applied to special areas, to improve products' added value.
(2)innovation development point two - innovation in analysis and testing
Gradually establish a set of modern methods and means for analysis and testing of organic phosphine products, study the relationship between product structure and composition and performance, and promote the improvement and innovation of product manufacturing processes.
(3)Innovation Development Point III--Modification and Formulation
The effective utilization rate of products is improved by developing new structural products of organophosphate scale inhibitors and chelating agents, product modification, and advanced and precise screening of formulations and products. The effective utilization rate of products is improved, and the environment's pressure is reduced to the maximum extent.
4、Innovation and development of water-soluble polymer scale inhibitor and dispersant
Water-soluble polymers include water-soluble homopolymers and copolymers, efficient water-soluble polymers, environmentally friendly water-soluble polymers, and formulation compositions.
(1) simple homopolymers PAA, HPMA, etc.; (2) MA-AA, T-225, etc.; (3) binary or multiple copolymers with strong polar groups such as AA-AMPS; (4) phosphorus-containing polymers; (5) environmentally friendly polymers, modified high-efficiency polymers, and complex polymers.
Compared with organophosphine products with clear physical and chemical indicators, polymers have many influencing factors, difficult to control precisely, and most complex to manufacture.
To strengthen the basic theoretical research, enterprises, universities, and research institutes work together, hoping to have more talents and funds to develop and produce water-soluble polymers.
Focusing on the molecular weight size and distribution of water-soluble polymers, scientific and technological innovation in research and development, production and application, the use of advanced instruments, production equipment, intelligent control, and enhance the technological content of each link, performance improvement, stable quality, more widely used.
Modification and compounding are the key directions of innovation and development, and improving the environmental friendliness of products is in line with the original intention of water treatment agents.

5、Innovation and development of biocides and algaecides
Biocide Features

Sterilization and algae elimination is the key link in the normal operation of industrial circulating cooling water.

Common biocides

At present, the commonly used fungicides are chlorine and quaternary ammonium salts, such as sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, 1227, etc. The products are relatively single, and bacteria are prone to drug resistance.

Problems

To improve water resource utilization in various industries, water reuse has become an inevitable development trend, leading to bacteria and algae, which leads to the contradiction between efficient, environmentally friendly biocides and high costs.

Development Direction
The development of new and efficient fungicides, such as bromine, phosphonium quaternary, bis-quaternary, poly quaternary, organic guanidine, environmentally friendly, and efficient compounding agents has become the direction of fungicide research while making them widely available at low cost.

Innovation and Development

In the face of complex water quality conditions, the applicability of biocides should be determined by a large amount of test data and field applications, following the principles of high efficiency, low toxicity, and minimal environmental impact.

6. Innovation and development of corrosion inhibitors

Innovations in Corrosion Inhibitor Applications

Innovations in Corrosion Inhibitor Formulation 

Inorganic corrosion inhibitor: zinc salt, molybdate, tungstate, chromate, borate, nitrate, phosphate, carbonate, etc.
Organic corrosion inhibitors: organophosphorus acid, sodium tartaric acid, etc.

Polymerization corrosion inhibitors: PESA, PASP, POCA, etc.

The integration of the above corrosion inhibitors is innovative, synergistic, and continuously optimized.

Theoretical Innovation

Compared to other water treatment agents, corrosion inhibitors have not been updated for a long time. Product development and basic theoretical research are almost at a standstill, so is it necessary to do in-depth research on the corrosion inhibiting mechanism and product structure?

Development of New and Efficient Corrosion Inhibitors

Development of efficient and cost-effective corrosion inhibitors

To address the issue of performance to price ratio, is it necessary to develop efficient and cost-effective products for the current state of corrosion inhibitors?

Or are existing products already sufficient?

Environmentally Friendly Development

Development of low-phosphorus and phosphorus-free corrosion inhibitors.

Is there a greener corrosion inhibitor?

7. Flocculant Innovation and Development

Basic Research

Human resource investment in basic theoretical research, product quality improvement, and the relationship between structure and performance cannot be ignored.

Product Development

Continued innovation, including developing new and efficient flocculant coagulant products and improving existing product quality to develop environmentally friendly flocculant products.

Application Innovation

As with recycled water, flocculants' selection and use are even more critical for more complex wastewater conditions.

Resource Integration

There are many types of flocculants, with greater differences in levels, a more complex mixture of multiple agents, and even many widespread adulterations, which require the classification of various products into different categories to meet different needs ers.